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Agriculture and Food Products


India produces more than 70 million tonnes of wheat. It is mainly consumed in the form of atta, suji, maida and baking flour. Most of the wheat is milled in small capacity disc mills to produce wheat flour (atta). Maida-the refined wheat flour, used in the bakery industry, could be produced in capital intensive and sophisticated roller flour mills. Small scale bakery industry is often confront

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Bakery has been a traditional activity globally. In India also this has been a conventional economic activity. Bread & biscuits contribute more than 70% of the total bakery products. Over a period of time, age old bakeries have been replaced by mechanised ones and several new varieties of biscuits are available in the market. India is amongst the top five biscuit

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Vinegar is an important preservative and condiment and it is being produced since centuries. It is produced through the action of acetic acid bacteria on dilute solutions of ethyl alcohol derived from yeast fermentation. It is also produced from fermented cider, fruit juices or other fermented alcoholic solutions derived from barley malt, hydrolysed cereals and starches.

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Vermicelli is a popular instant food product. It falls under the category of extruded product and is made from wheat flour. At times tapioca or soya bean or groundnut flour is also added. Thus, it is rich in proteins and liked by people from all walks of life, irrespective of age. It is basically a snack food item and at times it is also used as a table enricher. With

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Vegetable oil and fat resources are indispensable to mankind as a source of nutrient and industrial raw materials. Crude vegetable oil obtained from various oil milling units is further refined before use for edible purposes. Refined edible oil is a process where free fatty acids are volatized, condensed and recovered simultaneously with vacuum de-colouring operation.

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Spices are very common in Indian cuisine and variety of spices are used every day. In the daily food or snack preparations, spices like red chilly powder, turmeric powder or black pepper powder are used regularly. But this note describes some speciality spices which are prepared from combination of several spices and offer special taste. Many special vegetables

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Tutty-fruity is made from unripe papaya fruit and contains substantial quantum of sugar. It is used as an additive in ice-cream and some sweets but its major consumption is in paan masala and some fresheners or "Mukhwas". It is a mass consumption item across the country. Children & young generation are very fond of it.

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Turmeric is an important condiment used mainly for culinary preparations and also as a dye with varied uses in cosmetic industries. It is also used for therapeutical applications externally and internally. ‘Kum-Kum’ is also a product of turmeric which finds a place in offerings on religious and ceremonial occasions.

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Tomato is a very popular vegetable throughout the country and it is grown in many states. Apart from use in vegetables, its down stream products like soup, concentrates, sauce, puree, ketchup are also equally popular and they have a longer shelflife unlike fresh tomatoes. Tomato is perishable and needs to be transported carefully to avoid damage during transit.

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Tomato Ketchup is a table product used in households, restaurants, canteens etc. It is used with sandwtches, snack food items and while cooking many vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Tomatoes are not available throughout the year and their prices shoot-up during lean season. Further,

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Soyabeans are rich in proteins and are becoming popular day-by-day. States like MP, UP, Maharashtra, Gujarat etc. are producing substantial quantities with MP being the largest producer. Bulk of the soyabeans are processed by solvent extraction plants for oil leaving large quantities of defatted soya flakes. These flakes or deoiled soya cake can be converted

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The growing demand for snacks has led to the introduction of new edible food items like tapioca chips. It has a rightful place in the household menu all over the country. This tasty delicacy makes a good titbit as a snack food item, not only in households but also in parties, gatherings, picnics etc.

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Tamarind trees are grown in almost all parts of the country and India is a leading producer of tamarind fruits. Due to some peculiar food habits of the Indians, juice of tamarind fruits is used regularly in many food as well as snack preparations. Tamarind fruits are rarely used directly. Instead, they are soaked in water for some time and then juice is extracted manually.

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India is one of the major producers of tamarind fruits with cultivation throughout the country. But states like Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Orissa are the major producers. This note considers UP as the preferred location. Fresh and dried Tamarind is usually not used directly in preparing food items but its pulp is generally used. Usually, dried tamarind

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Freshly extracted sugarcane juice is a very popular drink in India. Presently, the juice is being extracted using hand/power operated crusher which cannot be stored for a couple of hours due to its fast deteriorating quality. Sugarcane juice is quite nutritious as it contains natural sugars, minerals like iron, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium and organic acids e.g. malic acid, succinic acid, aco

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